Heraclitus - Greek philosopher; first of the Greeks to develop a theory of the human soul; he praised its creative resources and spoke of the importance of self-exploration; he spoke of the logos that is common to all and said that the universe is ruled by logos; he always urged that close attention be given to the polarites and concealed structures emodied in language.
One legend, which forms the basis of Matthew Arnold's poem Empedocles on Etna, held the Empedocles, tired of life and wanting people to believe that the gods had taken him with them, committed suicide by leaping into the crater of Mt. Socrates - Greek philosopher; emphasized the study of human nature in relationship to society; influence the growth of science through standards for clear definitions and classifications, for logic and order, and for prudent skepticism.
Democritus of Abdera - Greek philosopher; pupil of Leucippus; developed atomic theory; elaborated idea that matter consisted of atoms having physical size and shape which constantly moved in a void and interacted in different ways; Greek word atoma means indivisible.
The work had a hostile reception when it was published (1543), as it challenged the ancient teaching of the Earth as the centre of the universe.
In the 1600' Galileo and Kepler began to develop the physics that would prove Copernicus right.
The Reformation, the Renaissance, and the scientific period of the 17th century can hardly be contemplated without printed books.
Nicholas Copernicus - Polish astronomer; regarded the founder of modern astronomy. He studied mathematics and optics at Cracow, then canon law at Bologna, before becoming canon of Frombork.
The school, later called the Garden, accepted women and slaves. Fragments from his most important work, Peri physeos (On Nature), were recovered from the charred papyri of Herculaneum, buried by an eruption of Vesuvius in AD 79.
This, coupled with Epicurus' teachings concerning pleasure, led to public criticism of the school as a scene of debauchery. Johann Gutenberg - a craftsman from Mainz, Germany.
Empedocles - Some suggest (c.484-c.424) - Greek doctor, poet and philosopher.