Three candidates were on the ballot, and Erdoğan prevailed with 51.8 percent of the vote, winning a once-renewable five-year term.
Foreign Minister Ahmet Davutoğlu assumed Erdoğan’s posts of prime minister and head of the AKP.
The ruling Justice and Development Party (AKP) secured two electoral victories in 2014.
Under the AKP, various reforms have increased civilian control over the military.
Hundreds of military officers were convicted in 20 for alleged involvement in coup plots.
Related riots and clashes across southeastern Turkey left at least 33 people dead. Electoral Process: 10 / 12 (−1) The prime minister is head of government and currently holds most executive authority, while the president is head of state and has powers including a legislative veto and authority to appoint judges and prosecutors.
In August 2014, Turkey held direct presidential elections for the first time; presidents were previously elected by the parliament.
The most recent elections, in 2011, were judged to be generally free and fair.
The AKP won a majority (326) of the 550 seats, with the remainder divided among the Republican People’s Party (CHP, 135 seats), the Nationalist Action Party (MHP, 53 seats), and the largely Kurdish People’s Democracy Party (HDP, 36 seats).
Media outlets bearing unfavorable coverage of the government have been closed or placed under investigation.
In December, more than 30 people linked to Gülen, including newspaper editors and television scriptwriters, were arrested on charges of establishing a terrorist group; this sparked widespread protests.
Erdoğan has pushed for constitutional changes to create a stronger presidency.
The unicameral parliament, the Grand National Assembly, is elected for a four-year term.
A party must win at least 10 percent of the nationwide vote to secure parliamentary representation, the highest electoral threshold in Europe.