The donkey, which was the principal transport animal (the camel did not become common until Roman times), was probably domesticated in the region.
In various periods there were immigrants from Nubia, Libya, and especially the Middle East.
They were historically significant and also may have contributed to population growth, but their numbers are unknown.
In addition, the Egyptians had a great interest in, and knowledge of, most species of mammals, birds, reptiles, and fish in their environment.
Most Egyptians were probably descended from settlers who moved to the Nile valley in prehistoric times, with population increase coming through natural fertility.
This productivity made it possible to store large surpluses against crop failures and also formed the chief basis of Egyptian wealth, which was, until the creation of the large empires of the 1st millennium , the greatest of any state in the ancient Middle East.
Basin irrigation was achieved by simple means, and multiple cropping was not feasible until much later times, except perhaps in the lakeside area of Al-Fayyūm.
Cattle may have been domesticated in northeastern Africa.
The Egyptians kept many as draft animals and for their various products, showing some of the interest in breeds and individuals that is found to this day in the Sudan and eastern Africa.
It may have been used as a food crop, and it certainly was used to make rope, matting, and sandals.